Burrows Park (Park) District Mining Information

Hinsdale County

Burrows Park District (aka Whitecross District; aka Park District)

This district is possibly an amalgamation of several districts, but at least has several names. Henderson provides very a very specific location for the Park District, listing 16 sections in three different townships that appear to be the same as other descriptions of the Whitecross/Burrows Park District. Dunn (2003) indicates that the Burrows Park District may have originally been known as the Park District, which seems to fit with Henderson’s description. She notes that Hinsdale County was divided into six districts by the state legislature in 1893, of which the Park District was one, along with the Carson, Cimarron, Galena, Lake, and Sherman Districts. Mindat.org (Sep 2015) considers the Burrows Park, the Park and the Whitecross to be the same district, a convention we follow here.

Vanderwilt (1947) considered the Burrows Park District, which he described as sitting at the head of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River, to be a continuation of the mineralization of the Silverton area. Wilson and Spanski (2004) aggregated the Burrows Park District in with eight other districts as the “San Juan Mineralized Area.” The connection is that they appear to lie within the San Juan caldera of Steven and Lipman (1976). (The other districts in this grouping are the Galena/Henson Creek, the Sneffels, South Ouray, Eureka, Telluride, Ophir, Red Mountain and Lower San Miguel, of which the Galena is in Hinsdale County.)

The geology consists of tuffs and flows associated with the Oligocene San Juan caldera complex, with an outlier of Precambrian granites in the middle (Vanderwilt, 1947). Mineralization consists of “filled fissures grading into replacement types” of chalcopyrite ore, sphalerite-galena ore or gold-silver ore with small amounts of lead and zinc (Vanderwilt, Ibid).

Eberhart (1969) discusses the three settlements that arose around Cinnamon Pass – Whitecross, Tellurium and Sterling. He indicates that the harsh winters and associated transportation problems inhibited both the mines and the towns.

Mines listed in the district (mindat.org; Eberhart, 1969; Dunn, 2003) include:
 Allen Dale2
 Bon Homme Tunnel1, 2
 Burrows Park Group1
 Champion2
 Cleveland Group (Hilluron Millsite; Ida; Lock Lommond)1
 Cracker Jack2
 Dewey1
 Gavin Pipe Occurrence1
 Gnome Mine (Bull Run; Bull Run No. 1; Unpatented Claims: Sydney Nos. 1-3;
Gnome Nos. 1-26; Patented Claim: Gnome)1
 Goodwin1
 Goodwin’s Creek1
 Illinois Boy Mine (Patented Claim: Illinois Boy)1
 Isolde Mine (Belcher; Baltimore; Isolde)1
 Little Sarah2
 Monticello Mine1
 Mountain King2
 Napoleon Mine (Patented Claim: Napoleon)3
 Ohio Mine1
 Onida3
 Park View Mine (View of the Park Mine; D & N Lead Mining Company Nos. 1-4)1
 Providence2
 Seward County Mine (Patented Claim: Seward County)1
 Silver Star Mine (Patented Claim: Silver Star)1
 Tobasco2
 Troy2
 Undine3
 Whitecross Mountain1
Notes: 1 Mines listed in mindat.org, September 2015.
2 Mines listed by Eberhart (1969), as located near the settlements around Cinnamon Pass.
3 Mines listed by Dunn (2003).
Minerals listed in the district (mindat.org) include:
Brochantite
Calaverite
Calcite
Chalcopyrite
Galena
Lillianite
Molybdenite
Opal var: Opal-AN
Platinum
Pyrite
Quartz
Sphalerite
Tetrahedrite
References:
Dunn, Lisa. 2003. Colorado Mining Districts: A Reference. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Eberhart, Perry. 1969. Guide to Colorado Ghost Towns and Mining Camps. Fourth, revised edition. Swallow Press, Athens, Ohio.
Henderson, C.W. 1926. Mining in Colorado, a history of discovery, development and production. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 138.
Steven, T.A. and Lipman, P.W. 1976. Calderas of the San Juan Volcanic Field, Southwestern Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 958.
Vanderwilt, John W. 1947. Mineral Resources of Colorado. Colorado Mineral Resources Board, Denver, Colorado.
Wilson, A.B. and Spanski, G.T. 2004. Distribution of Mines and Mineralized Areas in Bankey, V., ed. Resource Potential and Geology of the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, Gunnison National Forest and Vicinity, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2213.
www.mindat.org, accessed September 2015.

This information is from the Colorado Geological Survey website at http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org

Lake City (Lake) Mining District Information

Hinsdale County

Lake City District (aka Lake District; aka Lake Fork District)

The Lake City District has been identified as the Lake, the Lake City and the Lake Fork District. These districts are occasionally differentiated, but here we include all as the same district, extending south to Lake San Cristobal.

The Lake District was one of the six districts into which the Colorado legislature divided Hinsdale County in 1893. (The others were the Carson, Cimarron, Galena, Whitecross and Sherman Districts.) The district occupies the Lake City, Uncompahgre Peak and Redcloud Peak quadrangles.
Lake overlaps (or blends into) the major district to the west, the Galena or Henson Creek District. Mindat.org separates the Lake and the Galena into two districts. The seminal work on the area – Irving and Bancroft (1911) does not distinguish the different districts, but rather discusses mines in the vicinity of Lake City.

Mindat.org and Dunn (2003) list the group of mines (the Hidden Treasure, Ute and Ulay) among the most famous and productive in the Lake City District. However, Irving and Bancroft (Ibid) lists them among the “Henson Creek Mines,” which implies Henson Creek (Galena) District. Vanderwilt (1947) places these mines in the Galena (Henson Creek) District also, and provides a structural distinction between the two districts, noting that a down-faulted block lies between Henson Creek and Lake Fork. We have chosen to make the distinction as mindat.org does to make referencing the mines easier for the reader.

Irving and Bancroft (Ibid) distinguish a group of mines as the San Cristobal Group, south of Lake City – a geographic distinction that we believe places those mines in the Lake City district.
The geology of the Lake City District is typical of the San Juan Mountains. The district sits within the caldera fill on the northeast margin of the Lake City Caldera (Steven and Lipman, 1976; Wilson and Spanski, 2004). Units include Oligocene quartz latite and andesitic flows and breccias of significant lateral extent, plus more localized flows; the Bachelor Mountain and Carpenter Ridge tuffs, the Fish Canyon tuff, the La Garita tuff, the Henson and Burns formations, the Sapinero Mesa, Eureka and Dillion Mesa tuffs along with silicic lavas (Day et al., 1999). Generalized descriptions are also available in Sanford et al. (1987).

Mineralization was described generally by Vanderwilt (Ibid) as vein mineralization continuous with that of the Silverton area. Bove et al. (2000) distinguish 23 Ma precious metal-bearing barite veins and older base-metal veins. Irving (1905) and Irving and Bancroft (1911) provide a detailed descriptions of the rocks and mineralization.

Some top-producing mines include the Golden Fleece (nee Hotchkiss) mine, discovered in 1874, which produced $1.4M in metals (Henderson, 1926). The Pelican Mine produced off and on from 1891 to 1960; Irving and Bancroft (Ibid) report freibergite, pyrargyrite and galena as the main minerals. The Fanny Fern Mine produced silver from tetrahedrite, reporting 74,000 ounces of silver and 65 ounces of gold.

The Black Crook Mine operated off and on until 1953. The Contention Mine was another major producer.

The Ute and Ulay veins are names that always appear in relation to the mines and deposits of the Lake City area. The Ute was the most productive and important of all the mineral veins in the district (Irving and Bancroft, Ibid). The vein was traced for 2,700 feet along outcrop. The vein described an arc, concave to the northwest, averaging four feet in width, but pinching and swelling and occasionally splitting. The vein sequentially filled first with quartz, then rhodochrosite/tetrahedrite/galena and then more quartz. Later movement shattered the vein material and deposited more quartz and barite. The ore mineralization was (presumably, because it was mostly gone even before Irving and Bancroft visited) argentiferous galena with subsidiary tetrahedrite, sphalerite, pyrite and enrichments of ruby silver (proustite/pyrargyrite – Ag3AsS3- Ag3SbS3). Further details are available in Irving and Bancroft (Ibid).

A unique situation has been identified at the Golden Wonder Mine. Irving and Bancroft (Ibid) recognized it as the “only true replacement deposit” in the Lake City area. It was recognized as a hot spring deposit in the 1980’s (Billings, 1983; Billings and Kallowkoski, 1982; Kalliokoski and Rehn, 1987), described as a small epithermal alunitic gold and base metal deposit within flow-foliated rhyolite. The deposit contains considerable gold (often microscopic native gold) and maintains an active permit with the State of Colorado as of 2015 for LKA Gold Incorporated.

Early activity did not develop until the Brunot Treaty of 1873 with the Ute tribe allowed worry-free entry into the territory. The Ute-Ulay discovery had been made in 1871, but not developed until the treaty was in place (Eberhart, 1969). Lake City was the first settlement, named for Lake San Cristobal. Many colorful characters passed through the town, including Alfred Packer, the famous Colorado cannibal.

Mines listed in the district (mindat.org and others) include:
 Belle of the West Mine (Malter Placer; Western Belle; Delphos; Trenton; Extension; Patented Claims: Belle of The West)
 Black Crook Mine (Ilma-Hiwassee group; Ilma Mine; New Year)1
 Cleveland Mine
 Contention Mine (Patented Claims: Contention; Mayflower)1
 Dauphin1
 Dawn of Hope
 Eckman Manganese Deposit
 Evangeline claim
 Fanny Fern Mine (Mayday Lode; J. C. Lode; Springfield; Unpatented Claims:
Fanny Fern No. 2; Patented Claim: Fanny Fern; B. R. Lode)
 Ferrara Ranch
 Galena
 Garlock mine
 Gladiator Mine (Ore House; Gladiator; Montana Nos. 1-9)
 Gold Quartz Mine (Wells Mine; Patented Claim: Red Cloud; Gold Quartz Nos. 1-6; Unpatented Claim: Gold Quartz)
 Golden Wonder Mine1, 2
 Happy Day
 I.D.A. Occurrence
 Ilma Mine
 L-C Property (Lake City Property)
 Lake City
o Belle of the East Mine
o Golden Fleece Mine1
o Governor Pitkin Mine
o Hidden Treasure Mine1
o Hotchkiss lode
o Ocean Wave Mine
o Oulay Mine (Ulay Mine; Ute-Ulay Mine)1
 Lake Fork River
o Monte Queen Mine
 Lode Star1
 Louise Morrell Lode Nos.1 & 2
 Mable
 Matterhorn Peak Area
o Dix and Cimarron Chief Groups
 Missouri Favorite Mine1
 Monte Queen1
 Nellie M. Mine (Patented Claim: Nellie M.)1
 Ottawa Mine1
 Pelican Mine1
 Red Mountain Alunite Deposit
 Risorgimento Mine (Patented Claim: Risorgimento)
 Rodney No. 1
 Silver Creek
 St. Mary’s Mining Company Property (V.C.)
 Sulphuret Mine (Cora; Patented Claims: Sulphuret; Sulphuret-Cora Mine)1
 Sunshine Peak tuff
 Uncompahgre Peak
 Uncompahgre Peak Prospect (Maurell Claim)
 Ulay1
 Ute1
Notes: 1Detailed description of mine contained in Irving and Bancroft (1911).
2Considerable information on mine (refer to bibliography).
Minerals listed in the district (mindat.org) include:
Acanthite
Aikinite
Altaite
Alunite
Ankerite
‘Apatite’
Arsenopyrite
Azurite
Baryte
Bismuthinite
Bornite
Boulangerite
Bournonite
Calaverite
Calcite
Chalcopyrite
Chalcostibite
‘Chevkinite’
Coloradoite
Colusite
Copper
Covellite
Dickite
Emplectite
Enargite
Epidote
Fluorite
Freibergite
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
Gold var: Electrum
Gypsum var: Selenite
Hematite
Hessite
Hinsdalite (TL)
Jamesonite
Kaolinite
Krennerite
Lead
‘Limonite’
Luzonite
Magnetite
Malachite
Marcasite
Matildite
Mawsonite
Melanterite
Melonite
Molybdenite
Molybdite
Muscovite var: Sericite
Natrolite
Pearceite
Petzite
Pilsenite
Polybasite
Proustite
Pyrargyrite
Pyrite
Pyroxmangite
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
var: Jasper
Rhodochrosite
‘Schirmerite’
Silver
Smithsonite
Sphalerite
Stephanite
Stibnite
Stützite
Svanbergite
Sylvanite
Tellurium
Tellurobismuthite
Tennantite
Tetrahedrite
var: Argentian Tetrahedrite
var: Zincian Tetrahedrite
Uraninite var: Pitchblende
Volynskite
Wurtzite
References:
Billings, Patty. 1983. Underground Geologic Maps of the Golden Wonder Mine, Lake City, Hinsdale County, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 83-907.
Billings, P. and Kalliokoski, J. 1982. Alteration and Geologic Setting of the Golden Wonder Mine, Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 14, pp. 443-444.
Bove, D.J., Hon, K., Budding, K.E., Slack, J.F., Snee, L.W. and Yeoman, R.A. 2000. Geochronology and Geology of Late Oligocene Through Miocene Volcanism and Mineralization in the Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-347.
Day, W.C., Green, G.N., Knepper, D.H., Jr., and Phillips, R.C. 1999. Spatial Geologic Data Model for the Gunnison, Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre National Forests Mineral Assessment Area, Southwestern Colorado and Digital Data for the Leadville, Montrose, Durango, and Colorado Parts of the Grand Junction, Moab, and Cortez 1 degree x 2 degrees Geologic Maps. U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 99-427.
Dunn, Lisa. 2003. Colorado Mining Districts: A Reference. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Eberhart, Perry. 1969. Guide to Colorado Ghost Towns and Mining Camps. Fourth, revised edition. Swallow Press, Athens, Ohio.
Henderson, C.W. 1926. Mining in Colorado, a history of discovery, development and production. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 138.
Irving, J.D. 1905. Ore Deposits in the Vicinity of Lake City, Colorado in Emmons, S.F. and Eckel, E.C., Contributions to Economic Geology, 1904. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 260.
Irving, J.D. and Bancroft, H. 1911. Geology and Ore Deposits near Lake City, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 478.
Kalliokoski, J. and Rehn, P. 1987. Geology of the Veins and Vein Sediments, of the Golden Wonder Mine, Lake City, Colorado: an Epithermal Hot Springs Gold-Alunite Deposit. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-344.
Sanford, R.F., Grauch, R.I., Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Grauch, V.J.S., and Korzeb, S.L. 1987. Mineral Resources of the Redcloud Peak and Handies Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Hinsdale County, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1715-B.
Steven, T.A. and Lipman, P.W. 1976. Calderas of the San Juan Volcanic Field, Southwestern Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 958.
Vanderwilt, J.W. 1947. Mineral Resources of Colorado. Colorado Mineral Resources Board, Denver, Colorado.
Wilson, A.B. and Spanski, G.T. 2004. Distribution of Mines and Mineralized Areas in Bankey, Viki, ed. Resource Potential and Geology of the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison (GMUG) National Forests and Vicinity, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2213-E, p. 67-86.
www.mindat.org, accessed September 2015.

This information is from the Colorado Geological Survey website at http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org

Sherman Mining District Information

Hinsdale County

Sherman District (aka Park District)

The Sherman District was one of the six districts into which the Colorado legislature divided Hinsdale County in 1893. (The others were the Galena, Cimarron, Lake, Whitecross and Carson Districts.) The location of the Sherman District is not well defined. Henderson (1926) indicates that the Park District overlaps the Sherman District. He provided a specific location for the Park District that appears to include the area we have enclosed in the Burrows Park District. He does indicate that it overlaps the Sherman District. Dunn (2003) distinguishes the two districts, with the Park District on the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River and the Sherman in the vicinity of the ghost town of Sherman. Mindat.org calls the two districts the same and places both south of the Cinnamon Pass area, which we have placed in the Burrows Park District. In general, we place the Sherman District (aka Park District) south of Handies Peak, to the area around Cottonwood Creek.

Dunn (Ibid) assigns the Black Wonder, Washington and Vermont mines to the Sherman District and the Illinois Boy, Champion and Grand Republic to the Park District. We have placed the Illinois Boy and Champion in the Burrows Park District.

The geology is generally described in Lipman (1976) and Lipman et al. (1976), summarized in Sanford et al. (1987) as lying in the area of the San Juan and Lake City calderas. Rocks included are Sapinero Mesa tuff and megabreccia, Precambrian granite representing the terrain in which the calderas formed, along with post-breccia lava flows and fill.

Mineralization is similar to the other Hinsdale County districts, with predominately veins carrying gold and silver, and some base metals. Sanford et al. (Ibid) found potential for precious and base metals, and porphyry molybdenum.

Mines listed in the district (mindat.org) include:
 Black Wonder Mine (Black Wonder Extension; Black Wonder No. 2; Patented Claims: Black Wonder)
 George Washington Group (Patented Claims: George Washington; No. 2 Ruby)
 Minnie Lee Mine (Patented Claims: Minnie Lee; Minnie Lee Mill Site; Morning Star)
 Sterling Group
Minerals listed in the district (mindat.org) include:
Acanthite
‘Apatite’
Chalcopyrite
Colusite
Covellite
Galena
‘Monazite’
Pyrite
Quartz
Rhodochrosite
Sphalerite
Tennantite
Tetrahedrite
Thorite
References:
Dunn, Lisa. 2003. Colorado Mining Districts: A Reference. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Eberhart, Perry. 1969. Guide to Colorado Ghost Towns and Mining Camps. Fourth, revised edition. Swallow Press, Athens, Ohio.
Henderson, C.W. 1926. Mining in Colorado, a history of discovery, development and production. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 138.
Lipman, P.W. 1976. Geologic Map of the Lake City Caldera Area, Western San Juan Mountains, Southwestern Colorado. U.S. Geologic Survey Miscellaneous Investigation Series Map I-962. Map Scale: 1:48,000.
Lipman, P.W., Fisher, F.S., Mehnert, H.H., Naeser, C.W., Luedke, R.G., and Steven, T.A. 1976. Multiple Ages of Mid-Tertiary Mineralization and Alteration in the Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Economic Geology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 571-588.
Sanford, R.F., Grauch, R.I., Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Grauch, V.J.S., and Korzeb, S.L. 1987. Mineral Resources of the Redcloud Peak and Handies Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Hinsdale County, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1715-B.
www.mindat.org, accessed October 2015.

This information is from the Colorado Geological Survey website at http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org

Carson Mining District Information

Hinsdale County

Carson District

There are not many districts in Hinsdale County, but there are numerous names and potential confusion. The Carson District appears in Henderson (1926) and is described by Vanderwilt (1947 as sitting at the head of Wager Gulch (a tributary of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River), approximately 18 miles southwest of Lake City. The area of the district crosses the continental divide into the headwaters of Lost Trail Creek.

Older geologic descriptions of the area can be found in Irving and Bancroft (1911). Based on more recent interpretations, Wilson and Spanski (2004) describe the area as the Carson volcanic center, a 29 Ma plug of monzonite to quartz monzonite composition, intruding intermediate lavas and breccias, and andesites and rhyolites of the Henson and Burns formations.

The rocks contain polymetallic veins in irregular fissures and fractures up to 18 inches wide (Larson, 1911). Ores contain silver and lead with some copper. Enargite, chalcopyrite and galena occur with some gold in a barite gangue. Some bog iron is also known to occur (Harrer and Tesch, 1959).

Eberhart (Ibid) describes the mining camp of Carson, established in 1882, the year after the district. The town sat directly on the continental divide, with water falling on one side of town heading toward the Lake Fork of the Pacific drainage, and water on the other side of town flowing into the Lost Trail Creek, of the Rio Grande system, headed toward the Atlantic Basin. With such a snow-bound location, the town didn’t last long.

Mines listed in the district (mindat.org; Dunn, 2003; Eberhart, 1969) include:
 Bachelor Mine
 Bonanza King
 Carson
 Chandler
 Cresco
 Dunderberg
 George the Third Mine (Hattie; Marian; St. Peter; Vermont)
 Iron Mask
 Kit Carson
 Legal Tender
 Lost Trail mine
 Maid of Carson
 Mayflower
 St. Jacob Mine (Griggs; Patented Claims: Hamilton; St. Jacob Group; St. Johns; St. Jacobs)
 Thor
 Wager Gulch Limonite Deposit
Minerals listed in the district (mindat.org)
Baryte
Chalcopyrite
Enargite
Famatinite
Galena
‘Limonite’
Marcasite
Pyrite
Quartz
Sphalerite
Tetrahedrite
References:
Dunn, Lisa. 2003. Colorado Mining Districts: A Reference. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Eberhart, Perry. 1969. Guide to Colorado Ghost Towns and Mining Camps. Fourth, revised edition. Swallow Press, Athens, Ohio.
Harrer, C.M. and Tesch, W.J., Jr. 1959. Reconnaissance of Iron Occurrences in Colorado. U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 7918, p. 44.
Henderson, C.W. 1926. Mining in Colorado, a history of discovery, development and production. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 138.
Irving, J.D. and Bancroft, H. 1911. Geology and Ore Deposits near Lake City, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 478.
Larsen, E.S., 1911. The Economic Geology of Carson Camp, Hinsdale County, Colorado in Hayes, C.W. and Lindgren, W., eds., Contributions to economic geology (short papers and preliminary reports) 1910: Part I – metals and nonmetals except fuels. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 470-B. p. 30-38.
Vanderwilt, John W. 1947. Mineral Resources of Colorado. Colorado Mineral Resources Board, Denver, Colorado.
Wilson, A.B. and Spanski, G.T. 2004. Distribution of Mines and Mineralized Areas in Bankey, Viki, ed. Resource Potential and Geology of the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison (GMUG) National Forests and Vicinity, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2213-E, p. 67-86.
www.mindat.org, accessed September 2015.

This information is from the Colorado Geological Survey website at http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org

 

Galena Mining District Information

Hinsdale County

Galena District (aka Henson Creek District)

The Galena District was one of the six districts into which the Colorado legislature divided Hinsdale County in 1893. (The others were the Carson, Cimarron, Lake, Whitecross and Sherman Districts.) The district occupies the Lake City, Uncompahgre Peak and Redcloud Peak quadrangles.
Henderson (1926) recognized the Galena District in his compilation for Colorado, and Vanderwilt (1947) placed it along Henson Creek, west of Lake City and considered the Henson Creek District an alternate name. He noted that all the productive mines were located near the creek.

The Galena District overlaps (or blends into) the major district to the east, known variously as the Lake, Lake City, and/or Lake Fork District. Mindat.org separates these into two districts. The seminal work on the area – Irving and Bancroft (1911) does not distinguish the different districts, but rather discusses mines in the vicinity of Lake City.

Further confusing the situation, the Galena/Henson Creek District is described by the name of the creek. Irving and Bancroft list the group of mines among the most famous and productive in the area (the Hidden Treasure, Ute and Ulay) among the “Henson Creek Mines” which implies Henson Creek (Galena) District; mindat.org lists these in the Lake City District, as does Dunn (Ibid). Vanderwilt (Ibid) places these mines in the Galena (Henson Creek) District also, and provides a structural distinction between the two districts, noting that a down-faulted block lies between Henson Creek and Lake Fork. We have chosen to make the distinction as mindat.org does, so that referencing the mines will be easier for the reader.

The geology and mineralization of the district is typical of the western San Juan Mountains. The district sits within the caldera fill on the northeast margin of the Lake City Caldera (Steven and Lipman, 1976; Wilson and Spanski, 2004). Units include Oligocene quartz latite and andesitic flows and breccias of significant lateral extent, plus more localized flows; the Bachelor Mountain and Carpenter Ridge tuffs, the Fish Canyon tuff, the La Garita tuff, the Henson and Burns formations, the Sapinero Mesa, Eureka and Dillion Mesa tuffs along with silicic lavas (Day et al., 1999). Generalized descriptions are also available in Sanford et al. (1987).

Mineralization was described generally by Vanderwilt (Ibid) as vein mineralization continuous with that of the Silverton area. Bove et al. (2000) distinguish 23 Ma precious metal-bearing barite veins and older base-metal veins. Irving (1905) and Irving and Bancroft (1911) provide a detailed descriptions of the rocks and mineralization.

The town of Henson was the main settlement in the district. It was the site of a major miners strike in 1899 centered on the Ute-Ulay and Hidden Treasure Mines (mines which we have placed in the Lake City District, further demonstrating the overlapping of the districts in this area). The Colorado governor sent six companies of troops to keep order and the strike was finally settled with the involvement of the Italian consul. (Eberhart, 1969).

Mines listed in the district (mindat.org; Irving and Bancroft) include:
 Ajax No. 2
 Bess
 Big Casino Mine (Big Casino No. 2 Mill
Site; Big Casino No. 2; Patented Claims:
Big Casino No. 2)1
 California mine
 Capitol City Mine (Panhandle; Old
Glory; Laddie Boy; Sunny Chief)1
 Chord
 Copper Mountain
o Big Horn prospect
o John J. Crooke prospect
 Czar Mine (Broker; Czarina; Czar)1
 Czarina Mine1
 Dolly Varden Mine (Varden Belle Mine;
Patented Claim: Dolly Varden)
 Eagle and Mary Alice Claims
 Excelsior Mine (Patented Claim:
Excelsior)1
 Frank Hough Mine (Hough Mine;
Patented Claim: Frank Hough)
 Gallic – Vulcan Group (Weatherhorn)1
 Golconda Mine
 Henderson Gold Mine1
 Henson Creek-Ute Creek
 Highland Chief Mine (Wall Street
Empire Chief Mine; Mathison)
 Hoosier Boy Mine (Unpatented Claims:
Isabel R.; Little Joe; Red Bird; Patented
Claim: Adelia; Blue Bird)
 Lellie Mine (Red Rover)1
 Lilly Mine1
 Mohawk
 Moro Mine (Moro Extension; Moro
Tunnel Site; Ajax Limited; Moro-Ajax
Mine; Moro Mill Site; Patented Claims:
Moro Limited; Unpatented Claims: Ajax
No. 2)1
 Oro – Fino Tunnels
 Palmetto Mine (Chimney Corner)
 Pearl and Ruby Groups (Ruby; Patented
Claim: Pearl)
 Pride of America Mine1
 Silver Chord Mine (Patented Claim:
Silver Chord)
 St Louis
 Treasure Hill Spar Claim (Patented
Claims: Treasure Hill Spar)
 Vermont1
 Woodstock Prospect
 Yellow Medicine Mine (Mountain Bell;
Patented Claims: Yellow Medicine)1
Note: 1 Detailed description of mine contained in Irving and Bancroft (1911).
Minerals listed in the district (mindat.org) include:
Acanthite
Anglesite
‘Apatite’
Azurite
Baryte
Bornite
Calcite
Cerussite
Chalcocite
Chalcopyrite
‘Chlorite Group’
Copper
‘Copper Stain’
Covellite
Emplectite
Enargite
Fluorapatite
Fluorite
Freibergite
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
Gold
Gypsum
Hessite
Jarosite
Kaolinite
‘Limonite’
Malachite
Muscovite var: Sericite
‘Obsidian’
Opal
Petzite
Pyrargyrite
Pyrite
Quartz
var: Amethyst
var: Chalcedony
Rhodochrosite
‘Ruby Silver Ore’
Silver
Smithsonite
Sphalerite
Stephanite
Stromeyerite
Sylvanite
Tennantite
Tetrahedrite
Uraninite
Uranophane
Wulfenite
References:
Bove, D.J., Hon, K., Budding, K.E., Slack, J.F., Snee, L.W. and Yeoman, R.A. 2000. Geochronology and
Geology of Late Oligocene Through Miocene Volcanism and Mineralization in the Western San Juan
Mountains, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-347.
Dunn, Lisa. 2003. Colorado Mining Districts: A Reference. Colorado School of Mines, Golden,
Colorado.
Eberhart, Perry. 1969. Guide to Colorado Ghost Towns and Mining Camps. Fourth, revised edition.
Swallow Press, Athens, Ohio.
Henderson, C.W. 1926. Mining in Colorado, a history of discovery, development and production. U.S.
Geological Survey Professional Paper 138.
Irving, J.D. and Bancroft, H. 1911. Geology and Ore Deposits near Lake City, Colorado. U.S. Geological
Survey Bulletin 478.
Slack, J.F. 1980. Multistage Vein Ores of the Lake City District, Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado.
Economic Geology, v. 75, no. 7, pp. 963-991.
Steven, T.A. and Lipman, P.W. 1976. Calderas of the San Juan Volcanic Field, Southwestern Colorado.
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 958.
Vanderwilt, John W. 1947. Mineral Resources of Colorado. Colorado Mineral Resources Board, Denver,
Colorado.
Wilson, A.B. and Spanski, G.T. 2004. Distribution of Mines and Mineralized Areas in Bankey, Viki, ed.
Resource Potential and Geology of the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison (GMUG) National
Forests and Vicinity, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2213-E, p. 67-86.
www.mindat.org, accessed September 2015.

This information is from the Colorado Geological Survey website at http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org

Real Estate Transfer Tax for Affordable Housing

SCR17-002

Real Estate Transfer Tax For Affordable Housing

Submitting to the registered electors of the state of Colorado an amendment to the Colorado constitution concerning the imposition of a real estate transfer tax of one-tenth of one percent of the value of real property transferred in the state that will be used to finance the provision of affordable housing, and, in connection therewith, allowing the revenues from the tax to be collected and spent notwithstanding any limitation provided by law.
SESSION: 

2017 Regular Session
SUBJECT: 

Housing

The concurrent resolution deletes the prohibition in the state constitution on new or increased transfer tax rates on real property.

The concurrent resolution imposes a tax upon the recording of each real property deed at the rate of 1/10 of one percent of the value of the real property as specified in the deed for the privilege of transferring the title to real property (tax). A conveyance from one spouse or other marital partner to another or a correction deed are exempt from payment of the tax.

At the time any deed evidencing a transfer of title subject to the tax imposed is offered for recording, the county clerk and recorder is required to ascertain and compute the amount of the tax due and to collect the same from the purchaser of the real property as a prerequisite to acceptance of the deed for recording. The amount of tax is computed on the basis of the value of the transferred property as specified in the deed.

The county clerk and recorder is required to collect the amount due under the tax and certify the date of payment and the amount collected on the deed. The county clerk and recorder is authorized to retain 5% of the amount collected as his or her fee for collection and to further remit the balance on a quarterly basis to the county treasurer. The county treasurer is then required to transmit the same to the state treasurer for the deposit of such money into the already existing state housing investment trust fund (fund).

Under existing legal requirements not changed by the concurrent resolution, the fund is administered by the division of housing within the department of local affairs (division). In addition to the permissible uses of money deposited into the fund under existing statutory requirements, the concurrent resolution specifies that permissible uses of the money collected from the imposition of the tax that are deposited into the fund pursuant to the resolution include the uses specified in the resolution. The concurrent resolution specifies the type of new or existing programs that must be supported with money collected by the tax.

The concurrent resolution requires that any new or existing programs supported by the tax are to be administered by the division.

The concurrent resolution contains additional requirements governing the use of money in the fund.

The concurrent resolution specifies that its approval by the registered electors of the state voting on the ballot issue at the general election held in November 2017 constitutes a voter-approved revenue change to allow the retention and expenditure of state revenues in excess of the limitation on state fiscal year spending.

The general assembly may modify any of the provisions as necessary in order to facilitate a more effective administration of the provisions. However, such legislation shall not limit or restrict the imposition of the tax or the use of the money raised by the tax to promote the provision of affordable housing.
(Note: This summary applies to this concurrent resolution as introduced.)

(This information was copied from the Colorado General Assembly website.)

Colorado Tourism Office Wildfire Message June 2018

Wildfire Messaging

Dear Industry Partners,

The CTO team has been working diligently in the face of the fires in the state. We wanted to send an update regarding our current messaging strategy and efforts assisting industry partners with the fires. Here is our response to date and how we are actively managing this crisis. 

Below is our current approved messaging:

STATEMENT FROM THE COLORADO TOURISM OFFICE ON ACTIVE WILDFIRES 

Colorado is dedicating unprecedented resources toward containing the three active fires in the state. A number of state agencies are working around the clock to contain the fires that have begun at the beginning of an especially hot and arid summer season in Colorado.

Colorado is the eighth largest state in the U.S. and most of its 104,100 square miles remain unaffected by fire. The state’s two main airports, Denver International Airport and Colorado Springs Airport, have experienced no flight cancellations or visibility issues. Despite the wildfires, most of the southwest area of Colorado is still open for business.

It is important to stay current on fire conditions across the state, but visitors can still expect to enjoy a memorable Colorado vacation the majority of Colorado’s destinations.

The Colorado Tourism Office is working closely with the communities being impacted by the fires. It is too early to assess the impact of the fires on Colorado’s tourism industry. All of our resources are dedicated to communicating the situation on the ground as it relates to visitors to Colorado.

Up-to-date information on location and status of the fires can be obtained via the Colorado Division of Emergency Management (www.coemergency.com); Twitter at @COEmergency) and the Inciweb Incident Information Center (www.inciweb.org/state/6).

# # #

We have inserted fire resource information on the Contact Us page of Colorado.com addressing the two most notable fires in Colorado. Visitors can access the above fire-related resource links at https://www.colorado.com/wildfireinfo.

We are working closely with the local CVBs and visitor centers. Since the start of the fires, the CTO and our PR team have been in close contact with the local areas impacted by the fires and getting regular updates. We will continue to regularly communicate with the industry partners in the effected areas and support their efforts.

We are communicating with Welcome Centers, 800-COLORADO call center and international media teams. We are providing updated statements on the fires to all consumer facing operations (i.e. Welcome Centers, call centers), as well as international PR agencies who may be receiving calls regarding the fires.

A big part of wildfire prevention is education. Below are some consumer wildfire prevention tips the team compiled and we encourage industry partners to post and communicate to visitors. As Colorado gears up for a busy summer travel season, the state urges people to travel responsibly, especially when it comes to fire prevention. Colorado’s low humidity has perks but can create dry, dangerous fire conditions. Below are tips and resources for Colorado travelers to help prevent wildfires and protect our great outdoors:

• Keep campfires small and manageable.
• Never let a fire burn unattended. 
• Properly maintain and watch campfires.
• Do not build a fire at a site in hazardous, windy or dry conditions. Check to see if campfires are permitted.
• Do not build a fire if the campground, area or event rules prohibit campfires.  Check with the campground or forest representative.
• Use an existing fire ring or fire pit. If there is not an existing fire pit, and pits are allowed, look for a site that is at least fifteen feet away from tent walls, shrubs, trees or other flammable objects. Also beware of low-hanging branches overhead. 
• Supervise children and pets when they are near fire.
• Never cut live trees or branches for fires.
• Fire restrictions and bans are set by local jurisdictions and by individual forest agencies.  Check with the local sheriff’s office, fire department or the federal forest agency before lighting a campfire this summer.
• If you think it isn’t safe enough to light a campfire — choose to be safe and not start one.
• Properly extinguish and dispose of cigarettes.
• When putting out a fire, water it until you can handle the embers.

Extinguish your campfire properly by following these steps from Smokey Bear and US Forest Service:

1.  Allow the wood to burn completely to ash, if possible.
2.  Pour lots of water on the fire, drown all the embers, not just the red ones.
3.  Pour until hissing sound stops.
4.  Stir the campfire ashes and embers with a shovel.
5.  Scrape the sticks and logs to remove any embers.
6.  Stir and make sure everything is wet and they are cold to the touch.
7. If you do not have water, use dirt. Mix enough dirt or sand with the embers. Continue adding and stirring until all material is cool. Remember: Do not bury the fire as the fire will continue to smolder and could catch roots on fire that will eventually get to the surface and start a wildfire.

In Times of Crisis: 6 Key Tips

While we distributed the below a few weeks ago, we thought now might be a good time to re-send our six key tips for managing crisis situations. We invite you to share these tips with your local industry partners and tourism related-organizations.

1. Tell the Truth. Transparency is vital to an organization’s credibility. Some think they can “spin” the situation to avoid telling the real story, but the truth never catches up with the lie.

2. Know When To Respond. Every situation is different, but typically there is a point when a crisis reaches a tipping point and a response is required. When a crisis arises, there is pressure to respond immediately. However, one should never respond to a crisis without carefully accessing the situation and having a plan in place. It is vital to assign team members to gather information on the ground, create messaging/draft statements, and formulate a plan of action for a response. If a proactive response is warranted, the action should be taken immediately so that the public and the media don’t assume the organization is trying to avoid the situation.

3. Dedicate a Media Spokesperson. You cannot control a crisis, but you can manage it. For crises that impact tourism, it is critical to either identify a lead spokesperson with media-facing experience or invest in media training for a senior member of your organization. It is a strong investment that can have unlimited return. It is vital to identify an authoritative figure who can communicate with the media and facilitate accurate and fair reporting, while simultaneously communicating key strategic messages.

4. Identify Media Sources. During a crisis, reporters will look to interview many different individuals to gather quotes that will help frame the story. More importantly, a reporter will keep attempting to reach potential sources until they find someone who will support their story. This is why it is imperative early on in a crisis to communicate your organization’s key messages to your constituents and industry partners and “speak with one voice”. It is best to encourage that inquiries are routed to a lead spokesperson, but when media want to talk to those on the frontline (and they likely will) it is helpful to provide them with key messages. This way, if contacted by the media, they will be prepared to answer specific questions while simultaneously communicating the broader strategic messaging.

5. Don’t Write Headlines for the Media. There are officials who will give regular emergency or operational updates to the media. Think: emergency management personnel, local police and fire departments, etc. Meet with these individuals to stress that, while updates should be accurate and factual, they should be careful not to use language that can easily be taken out of context. For example, last year, the Today Show used a headline (“fire of epic proportions”) after hearing a local fire official use the term during a media briefing on a wildfire.

6. A Picture Says a Thousand Words. Images reported by the media can be damaging to public perception. However, if the situation in your area is different than what the media is reporting, the best weapon you have is the truth. Be sure to share real-time content (images and video) via your social media channels, such as Facebook and Twitter, and encourage your followers to share this content with their networks. You should also take advantage of the Colorado Tourism Office’s social media resources. With sizable social media audiences, we can help communicate the real situation on the ground when what is being reported is less than accurate.

If you have any questions or concerns, please don’t hesitate to call us. We fully support the areas affected by the fires and, as always, these communities can count on our full support through this difficult time.

Sincerely,

The CTO Team

Lake City Open for Tourism June 14, 2018

Come recreate in southcentral Colorado

CREEDE, CO., (June 14, 2018):  Our region continues to offer spectacular outdoor recreational opportunities.

The Rio Grande National Forest is open, with Stage 1 fire restrictions. 

Come and enjoy the rural communities of Lake City, Creede, South Fork, and Del Norte.  Find out more about these towns at lakecity.com or creede.com or southfork.org or delnortechamber.org or check out the Silver Thread Scenic & Historic Byway info at silverthreadbyway.com

The Alpine Loop Backcountry Byway is open, with Stage 1 fire restrictions.

Travel this 65-mile scenic loop near the communities of Ouray, Lake City, and Silverton thru tundra vistas and past historic mining camps, waterfalls, and wildflowers.

 
The Uncompahgre and Gunnison national forests are open, with Stage 2 fire restrictions.
 
The San Juan National Forest remains closed, with Stage 3 fire restrictions.

Please be sure to follow the rules and restrictions with fire and travel.  Carry extra water and a fire extinguisher in your vehicles.

RWEACT — together with the Rio Grande National Forest and funded through the Colorado Water Conservation Board, the Department of Local Affairs, and the Office of Emergency Management – works to promote partnerships and actions that provide for public safety and resiliency of communities and watersheds of the Rio Grande Basin of Colorado. More organizational information can be found at www.rweact.org

Preparing for Wildfire Season 2018

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE            
Kristine Borchers
Five Actions for Today to Prepare for Wildfire Season
LAKE CITY, CO., (May 25, 2018):  With our current forest conditions, please consider taking action immediately to prepare for wildfire season.  
 
1)    Keep track of any fire restrictions in your County or in any area you are traveling to (especially as it relates to outdoor recreational activities).  A Red Flag Warning is a forecast warning issued by the National Weather Service that conditions are perfect for wildland fire combustion, and rapid spread of a wildfire if one does start.  Stage 1 Fire Restrictions limit open fires, trash and agricultural burning, fireworks or explosives, and limit where cigarette smoking is allowed. 
2)    Take photographs of every room in your home to provide documentation for your home insurance carrier.  Email off these photographs to your agent. 
3)    Create a wildfire emergency evacuation kit.  Gather as many of these items as you can ahead of time and place them in an easy-to-identify bag or box in your home.  For those items you can’t pack ahead of time, consider putting a “Other Items to Take” list to post on the refrigerator so you do not have to think through what to take when a pre-evacuation or evacuation notice is issued.  Suggested items include:  3 days-worth of non-perishable food and 3 gallons of water per person; at least two days of change of clothing; extra eyeglasses or contact lenses; prescription medicine along with a printed copy of the prescription; extra car keys, credit cards, cash or checks; a first aid kit and flashlight; battery-powered radio and extra batteries; personal toiletry supplies; copies of important documents; pet food and water; cell phones and charges; and computer hard-drives.  If time allows, you may want to take easily carried valuables and family photographs (it may be helpful to scan and store off-site family photographs and documents).    
4)    Determine where you will evacuate to – in multiple directions if necessary – and communicate your plans to one out-of-area family member or friend.  Make sure your entire household and family and friends know who this one person is that you will be communicating with and write down this telephone number (don’t rely on cell phone contact information as cell phone services are often down or overloaded during an event).  Talk with your household and neighbors about what should happen during an evacuation.  Sign up for the local reverse 911 notifications (different counties use different systems).  Check your County’s website. 
5)    Find out how to improve the defensible space around your forested home and neighborhood and either do the work or hire a local contractor https://csfs.colostate.edu/wildfire-mitigation/
RWEACT — together with the Rio Grande National Forest and funded through the Colorado Water Conservation Board, the Department of Local Affairs, and the Office of Emergency Management – works to promote partnerships and actions that provide for public safety and resiliency of communities and watersheds of the Rio Grande Basin of Colorado. More organizational information can be found at www.rweact.org

Owner Financing in Colorado

Excerpts from this article was taken from the Bronchick & Associates, PC website at (http://bronchicklaw.com/)

Owner financing in Colorado has changed drastically. Since the new provision of the Dodd Frank Act went into effect in January 2014, the Colorado Real Estate Commission has decided to remove the standard financing provisions from the CREC contract and require real estate brokers to hire lawyers to draft the appropriate provisions to comply with the law.   This article will discuss the different types of owner financing transactions and the practical and legal issues involved.

“Traditional” Seller-Financed Transaction

The so-called traditional seller-financed deal involves a seller who owns a property free and clear (without a mortgage) and is willing to carry the buyer with a small down payment.  At closing, title transfers to the buyer and the buyer signs a note to the seller for the balance of the purchase price.  The buyer also signs a deed of trust (mortgage) to the seller, which is recorded as a lien agains the the property.  Thus, the buyer is the owner of the property, and the seller is a lien holder (lender).

If the buyer defaults on the payments required on the note, the seller must file a foreclosure proceeding to get the property back.  This is done through a Public Trustee foreclosure, which is essentially a non-judicial process.  The process of foreclosure will usually take about 4 months.  After the foreclosure, the seller will also have to evict the occupant of the property in a regular FED (forcible entry and detainer) proceeding in County court.

Seller Carry Second

With a seller-carry second, the buyer gets a loan from a third party (usually a bank or mortgage company) for most of the purchase price.  The buyer will have title to the property, and the third party will have a note and deed of trust on the property as a first lien.  The buyer will execute a note and deed of trust to the seller for a small amount (usually 10-20% of the sales price), which will be a second lien on the property.

If the buyer defaults on the seller’s note, the seller would have to foreclose and pay off the first mortgage in front of his lien.

Wraparound AITD

A wraparound AITD (all inclusive trust deed) is where the seller deeds the property subject to the existing loan and the buyer signs a note to the seller secured by a deed of trust on the property.  The deed of trust is second (junior) to the existing deed of trust lien.  It is called “all inclusive” because the payment is for the ENTIRE amount.  For example, if the sales price is $100,000 and the seller owes $80,000, the buyer may put $10,000 down and sign a note for $90,000.  The seller collects on the $90,000 note (with principal and interest) and continues to pay his underlying loan, pocketing the monthly spread.

Sometimes the wrap is a “mirror”, that is, the all-inclusive note is the same as the underlying note.  In the above example, the seller pays $20,000 down and signs a note that mirrors the balance and terms of the seller’s underlying $80,000 loan.

If the buyer defaults on the note, the seller must foreclose the property through a Public Trustee auction.

Wraparound Land Contract.  

A wraparound installment land contract (aka “contract for deed”) is the same as a wraparound AITD except the title remains in the seller’s name until the debt is paid in full.  Typically the seller signs a deed that is placed in escrow with a title company to ensure that the buyer will get title if the seller disappears.

Upon default of the land contract, the legal process for the seller getting the property back is unclear under Colorado law.  The court could allow a forfeiture of equity and permit an eviction by the seller, or the court could require a JUDICIAL foreclosure (longer and more expensive process than a Public Trustee foreclosure).  The court’s decision is based on equitable factors, that is what is fair in the situation considering the buyer’s equity (size of down payment, accumulated equity, improvements, etc).

Lease/Option

A lease/option (aka “lease purchase”) is simply a lease with the option to purchase.  It is not a sale, like a wraparound land contract, although a long-term lease/option can begin to look like a land contract, hence make it more difficult to evict the tenant if he defaults on payments.  In rare cases, a court may treat a lease/option similar to a land contract, requiring the landlord to file a judicial foreclosure as if the transaction were a sale.  A properly constructed lease/option transaction will help avoid this characterization.

Safe Act and Dodd Frank The Colorado SAFE Act requires that a seller use a licensed mortgage loan originator to “underwrite” the loan, that is, qualify the buyer and prepare various disclosures.  Colorado law allows up to three owner financed transactions a year by a seller without having to comply with this requirement.  Investors who sell many properties will need to become licensed mortgage loan originators or hire one for their deals.

The Dodd Frank law is a federal statute that requires sellers to qualify buyers for owner-carry deals.  This includes wraps and contracts for deeds, but not lease/options (unless the lease/option is considered a “sale”, which can be the case for a long-term lease/option with a declining purchase price option). Dodd Frank only applies to transactions where the buyer will live in the property as their primary residence, not purchases by investors. Dodd Frank essentially gives one “free pass” a year to sellers who are not corporate entities, as in the case of someone selling their primary residence. This exemption puts minimal burdens on the seller and does not require the use of a licensed mortgage loan originator.

Corporate entities and/or investors who sell multiple properties a year (including mobile homes) must follow strict processing and documentation guidelines or face civil damages from a buyer for non-compliance.  Further, the seller must use a licensed mortgage loan originator if it does more than three deals a year.

Conclusion

Sellers and brokers engaging in owner-financed deals should seek legal counsel to discuss the implications of Dodd Frank and SAFE Act on their transactions.

Realtor, Equal Housing, MLS